The Scala programming language makes all reference types implicitly nullable. This is a problem, because null references do not support most operations that do make sense on regular objects, leading to runtime errors. In this paper, we present a modification to the Scala type system that makes nullability explicit in the types. Specifically, we make reference types non-nullable by default, while still allowing for nullable types via union types. We have implemented this design for explicit nulls as a fork of the Dotty (Scala 3) compiler. We evaluate our scheme by migrating a number of Scala libraries to use explicit nulls. Finally, we give a denotational semantics of type nullification, the interoperability layer between Java and Scala with explicit nulls. We show a soundness theorem stating that, for variants of System F omega that model Java and Scala, nullification preserves elements of ground types.